View updating and relational theory v413hav

The formal definition of a database schema is a set of formulas (sentences) called integrity constraints imposed on a database.

These integrity constraints ensure compatibility between parts of the schema.

The term n-tuple refers to a tuple of degree n (n ≥ 0). The term relation schema refers to a heading paired with a set of constraints defined in terms of that heading.

A relation can thus be seen as an instantiation of a relation schema if it has the heading of that schema and it satisfies the applicable constraints.

A set of attributes in which no two distinct elements have the same name is called a heading.

A set of tuples having the same heading is called a body.

A relation is thus a heading paired with a body, the heading of the relation being also the heading of each tuple in its body.